Fear and Phobia are qualitatively very different problems hence a distinction between them is useful.
1) A fear is a normal emotional response to a real or perceived threat that everyone experiences.
Eg: If someone points a gun at you, it is logical to feel fear. In contrast Phobia is a fear response to some stimulus that is illogical, Irrational & unreasonable and not based on a real threat.
2) Fear in fact is one of our defence mechanisms. There are some things we should fear, so that we can flee or avoid the situation whereas Phobia is counter-productive & interferes with not only one’s ability to perform but also their quality of life.
3) The difference between a fear and phobia is not just the acuteness of it; it is also that a phobia is blown out of proportion in the person’s mind.when someone has a real phobia, they spend an inordinate amount of time or make an unnecessarily large effort to avoid the thing they fear.
Eg; People, who have a spider phobia often spend considerable time worrying about spiders, spend an inordinate amount of time ensuring they do not come in contact with a spider, and will avoid places and activities in order to avoid spiders.
4) Fear can be easily overcome . Phobias cannot be easily overcome unless through effective Phobia treatment.